Meaning & Definition
Deferred compensation is a compensation arrangement in which a portion of an employee’s earnings or income is set aside to be received at a later date, typically after the employee’s retirement, termination, or upon reaching a specific milestone or vesting period. This form of compensation allows employees to defer the receipt of a portion of their earnings while providing them with potential tax advantages and financial planning benefits.
Key points about deferred compensation include:
- Types of Deferred Compensation Plans
There are several types of deferred compensation plans, including:
- 401(k) Plans
In the United States, 401(k) plans allow employees to contribute a portion of their salary to a tax-advantaged retirement account. Employers may match these contributions, and the funds are typically not accessible without penalties until retirement age.
- Pension Plans
Traditional defined benefit pension plans provide retirement income to employees based on a formula that considers factors like years of service and salary. Benefits are often not fully accessible until retirement.
- Stock Options and Equity Grants
Some forms of equity compensation, such as stock options and restricted stock units (RSUs), may have vesting periods during which employees cannot access or sell the shares.
- Nonqualified Deferred Compensation (NQDC)
This is a type of plan that allows highly compensated employees to defer a portion of their compensation. It offers tax-deferral benefits and can be tailored to individual circumstances.
- Retirement and Savings Plans
Some organizations offer savings plans that allow employees to defer a portion of their earnings into retirement accounts or other investment vehicles.
- Tax Benefits
Deferred compensation plans often come with tax advantages. Contributions to these plans are typically tax-deductible, and the earnings on the deferred funds grow tax-deferred until they are eventually distributed to the employee. This can result in potential tax savings and the ability to accumulate wealth over time.
Many deferred compensation plans have vesting schedules, which means that employees must meet certain conditions, such as completing a specific number of years of service, to fully access their deferred earnings.
- Distribution and Timing
The timing and conditions for distribution of deferred compensation can vary. Some plans allow distributions upon retirement, while others permit withdrawals at certain ages or under other specified circumstances. Early withdrawals may be subject to penalties or taxes.
- Asset Protection
In some cases, deferred compensation may offer protection from creditors and legal claims, making it an attractive option for preserving assets.
- Financial Planning
Deferred compensation can be a valuable tool for financial planning and retirement savings. It allows individuals to set aside a portion of their income for future needs and long-term financial security.
It’s important to note that the rules and regulations surrounding deferred compensation plans can vary by country, and specific plan details may differ based on an employer’s offerings. Employees considering deferred compensation should carefully review the terms of the plan and consider consulting with financial and tax advisors to ensure that they make informed decisions that align with their financial goals and needs.